Professor of Biology
Coordinator: Veterinary Studies Program
Coordinator: Program for Undergraduate Research (PURE)
Human Physiology (Biol 236) Lecture Syllabus
August 19, 2022. The lecture textbook will be a free, open
source, downloadable PDF (Human
Physiology, by Wikibooks Contributors, 2017). This PDF textbook will have
comments made by me, in pop-up boxes associated with highlighted parts
of the text. In theses comments I will tell you which sections you need to
read and study, as well as which sections we will not be covering. I will
be updating this PDF file for each chapter that we cover. I recommend downloading
the PDF onto your computer in order to view my embedded comments, as they
don't show up well when viewing the PDF online.
Manual : There is no published lab manual for this course. Lab exercises will be posted as a downloadable PDF on the online course syllabus (Look further down below on this page!). You must print these out and review them before coming to lab. Lab quizzes are based on these handouts.
Course Description: In this course we will investigate human physiology covering aspects of most of the major organ systems. The nature of physiology is to understand how different organ systems of the body are regulated by nervous and endocrine control, and this primarily involves negative feedback systems in order to maintain homeostasis. This course is tailored specifically towards pre-nursing students but is also relevant to students in related allied health programs. [If your major is focused on pre-medical, pre-pharmacy, pre-veterinary (or other) this might not be the appropriate level course for you. Please speak with me or your academic advisor.] This course involves A LOT of memorization of vocabulary along with more conceptual-based learning. Furthermore, this course will involve cumulative knowledge - meaning you will apply material covered earlier in the semester towards each successive newer concept and topic. Furthermore, this course involves learning many physiological pathways, and learning these pathways is often a new and challenging subject to master.
I will provide you with MANY resources online to help you practice and learn these pathways. Take advantage of the blank flow diagrams, chapter study outlines, and practice exams. I will also post blank PowerPoints online, which I will annotate over in class, so print these out or have them on your computer for class. Be prepared to study! You should spend about 1-3 hours outside of lecture studying for each hour in lecture that material is covered. Keep up with your reading of the textbook and review of lecture notes frequently. You must complete a course in Human Anatomy before taking this course, as we aim to build upon a pre-existing knowledge of anatomy.
Conduct : This course consists of
three lectures per week and one 3-hour lab. Lecture material is covered at
a rapid pace so print out the lecture PowerPoints and look them over before
lecture. Be prepared for in-class discussions and laboratory activities by
reading the assigned material prior to class. Students will be evaluated by
their performance on lecture exams and quizzes, and laboratory quizzes. Attendance
of both the lecture and the laboratories is mandatory. Notification of the
instructor prior to an absence is strongly recommended, and absences are excused
only for valid reasons (e.g. medical or legal reasons, or emergencies). No
more than 6 excused absences from lecture and 3 absences from lab are permitted.
Absences exceeding this limit can result in you being dropped from the course.
You will be responsible for making up any missed material. Material from the
lab can and will be included in the lecture portion of the course.
Lecture Exams: There are 4 exams in the semester, based on material covered in each quarter of the course; thus, exams are not comprehensive. Attendance at exams is mandatory. Make-up exams will be given only to students with documented excuses for an absence, and make-up exams will include fill-in-the-blank and short answer questions. If you miss an exam you must provide me with an official excuse and take a make-up exam within 1 week. Failure to do so results in a zero for that exam. There will be no exceptions to this rule. The final exam time and location is given by the Course Schedule. You must take your final exam when it is scheduled, and there will be no exceptions and no makeup final exam unless you have a verifiable emergency. If you schedule a vacation or trip during that time you will have to decide between the trip or receiving a zero for the final exam. If you have multiple exams on that day you simply must budget your time wisely and start studying well ahead of schedule.
Lecture Quizzes: There are 3 lecture quizzes consisting of 25 questions given during the first 25 min of lecture. Quizzes contain multiple choice, fill-in-the-blanks, and matching questions. If you come late to lecture on these days you do not take the quiz. If you miss a quiz, or arrive late on the day of a quiz, you must provide an official excuse and make-up the quiz within 1 week or you will receive a zero. There will be no exceptions to this rule.
Lab Reports: There will be 2 lab reports due during the semester. Spelling and grammar counts! Click HERE for guidelines on writing lab reports and see example lab report included within. Click HERE to see an example of a nursing article published using this format. Click HERE for blood pressure lab report grading guidelines. Click HERE to see how blood glucose regulation report is graded. Click HERE for kidney lab report grading guidelines.
Lab Quizzes: There are 6 lab quizzes during the semester consisting of 10 - 15 questions given during the first 15 min of lab. Quizzes contain multiple choice, fill-in-the-blanks, and matching questions. If you come late to lecture on these days you do not take the quiz. If you miss a quiz, or arrive late on the day of a quiz, you must provide an official excuse and make-up the quiz within 1 week or else you receive a zero. There will be no exceptions to this rule.
Attendance: There are no points given for attendance, BUT on-campus attendance and attendance to Course Zoom meetings is recorded throughout the semester. Students that attend lecture regularly, and follow any online supplements, tend to do better in the course. I often present material during lecture that is not found in the textbook. Furthermore, if you are receiving financial aid or are on academic warning the FMU registrar, financial aid office, or other administrative offices might contact me to ascertain the date of your last attendance in the course. Laboratory attendance/participation is mandatory! You are allowed no more than 6 absences from lecture, and no more than 3 excused absences from lab (with official excuse). Any further absences can result in your being dismissed from lab and the course. There is no way to make-up missed labs.
Performance : In this course performance is assessed based on percentage
of total possible points as shown below. The lab is worth 25% of the course.
There are no extra credit assignments in this course, so every quiz, exam,
and practical counts!
IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT APPLYING TO FMU'S BSN NURSING PROGRAM:
ContactClinical Coordinator - Nursing, Kelly Heavner, Office: LNB 144 Phone: 843-661-1689, E-mail
|Grading Scale||90 - 100% A||75 - 79.4% C+||60 - 64.4% D|
|85 - 89.4% B+||70 - 74.4% C||< 60% F|
|80 - 84.4% B||65 - 69.4% D+|
SCHEDULE: The following is a tentative lecture schedule of the
subject material, exam, quiz, and lab report dates.
This syllabus was last updated on Wed Oct 5, 2022
|Aug 24, 26 (WF)||W,
F: CH 1 HOMEOSTASIS & FEEDBACK LOOPS (PowerPoint)
1 Study Outline. Practice
Exam Ch 1.
Body temperature regulation flow chart. Body temperature KEY. Regulation of blood glucose flow chart, Regulation glucose KEY. LOW BP flow chart, Low BP KEY. HIGH BP flow chart. High BP KEY]
No labs this week! (Fri Aug 26th - Drop/Add ends)
Aug 29, 31 (MW) Sep 2 (F)
M, W: CH 2,
part 1: CELL METABOLISM.
2 part 1 Study Outline.
Practice Exam Ch 2 part 1 Updated 9/26/22).
for YouTube video of Wednesday's lecture (Aug 31st). In this lecture
I cover l gluconeogenesis (making glucose from non-carbohydrates).
An example of this is when the liver takes lactic acid (waste product
from skeletal muscle activity) from the blood and turns it into glucose
or glycogen using the Cori Cycle. I then covered the processes involved
in lipid metabolism (lipogenesis and lipolysis). I also discuss the
relevance of ketogenesi, ketosis, and ketoacidosis in lipid metabolism.
Lastly I covered amino acid metabolism by the liver, and the clinical
relevance of blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
Sep 5 (M)
Labor Day. No class. No labs this week.
W: Guest speaker: Dr. Dorie Weaver. Faculty member of FMU's Nursing Program. Dr. Weaver, and some current nursing students, will talk with you about the Nursing Program, the pharmacology course she teaches. Please come with questions to ask her! This is your chance to find answers to questions you have about the program, and what being a nurse is all about. She will also have some current nursing students attend to answer your questions.
|Sep 12, 14, 16 (MWF)||
MWF: CH 4,
part 1: PHYSIOLOGY OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS. (PowerPoint)
Notes ) Chapter
4 part 1 Study Outline. Instructor's
Practice Exam Ch 4 part 1. ACh
signaling flow chart, and HERE
19, 21, 23
4 part 1 contin.... (Don't worry if we take longer to finish Ch
4 part 1. I will adjust the syllabus accordingly. The material in
that chapter is too important to rush through.)
Sep 28, 30 (WF)
MW: Ch 4,
part 3: PNS PHYSIOLOGY (PowerPoint)
as of 9/28) (Completed
Instructors's Notes . Chapter
4 part 3 Study Outline. Practice
Exam Ch 4 part 3. PNS
flow chart; PNS flowchart KEY.
3, 5, 7 (MWF)
Ch 14: Endocrine Physiology. (PowerPoint)
14 Study Outline. Practice
Exam Ch 14, Instructor's
Notes (updated 3/8/2021); Endocrine
flow diagram. Endocrine KEY
Lab 4: Taste Physiology . Lab Quiz 3. Lab Report on Blood Glucose Regulation is DUE at start of lab.
Click HERE for YouTube video of lecture from Fri Oct 7. In this endocrinology lecture we go over how the hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary gland, and what pituitary hormones stimulate in the body. We discussed the negative feedback regulation of endocrine hormones, including discussing how hormonal birth control works, and the dangers of anabolic steroid use, and the effects of synthetic glucocorticoids like prednisone. We then starting discussing endocrine disorders such as pituitary dwarfism, gigantism and acromegaly, Cushing's, Addison's, Conn's syndrome, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
F: CH 6: MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY. (PowerPoint) (Completed Notes). Ch 6 Study Outline. Practice Exam Ch 6 . Instructor's notes;
10, 12 (MW)
Oct 14 (F)
6 contin... Lab
5: Muscle Physiology. Lab Quiz 4. Exam
2 review follows lab.
|Oct 17, 19, 21 (MWF)||MWF:
7 & 8: BLOOD AND CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY.
7 & 8 Study Outline.
Practice Exam Ch 7 & 8.
Click HERE for flow chart for regulation of LOW BP (Low blood pressure KEY), HERE for regulation of HIGH BP (High BP KEY), and HERE for regulation of blood OSMOLARITY. (Regulation of osmolarity KEY.) Click HERE for PDF outlining what system engages under what cicumstance of BP and osmolarity.
Click HERE for YouTube video of lecture from Friday Oct 21st. In this lecture I go over the ways that the body regulates blood volume and blood pressure, and blood osmolarity. We review how the medulla can correct high and low blood pressure, and then we went over how hormones can fix blood pressure. If blood pressure is too high, the heart secretes ANP, which will bring blood pressure back down. If blood pressure is too low, the kidney's juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes renin, which will lead to aldosterone production by the adrenal gland, which will ultimately increase blood pressure. When blood osmolarity is too high, the hypothalamus secretes ADH, which will increase water reabsorption in the kidneys and cause blood osmolarity to decreases.
Lab 6: Blood Pressure Regulation. Lab Quiz 5. Please wear a short sleeve shirt or one with sleeves that can roll up over biceps!) Blood Pressure Regulation lab report assigned! Due Nov 7& 8th. (See syllabus above, under Lab Reports, for guidelines, and grading criteria, for blood pressure lab report.)
Oct 24, 26, 28 (MWF)
Ch 7 & 8 contin...
for YouTube video of lecture on Wed Oct 26th. We completed Ch 7 (blood
physiology). We we covered blood physiology, including RBCs, anemias,
WBSc, WBC disorders, and blood typing.
Lab 7: CPR certification training lab! (If you need American Heart Association, Basic Life Support CPR certification for the nursing program, this lab will provide that for you.)
F: Lecture Quiz 2 (Ch 14 - endocrine)
Oct 31, Nov 2, 4 (MWF)
MWF: CH 11:
11 Study Outline. Practice
Exam Ch 11. Click HERE
for respiratory regulation of blood pH, click HERE
Nov 9, 11 (WF)
Fall break - no classes, no labs this week.
CH 10: KIDNEY PHYSIOLOGY. (PowerPoint) (Completed Notes) Ch 10 Study Outline. Practice Exam Ch 10 . Regulation of GFR flow chart, Regulation of GFR KEY .
Thus Nov 10th - last day to withdraw from a course with W
|Nov 14, 16, 18 (MWF)||M,W:
Ch 9: IMMUNE
9 Study Outline. Practice
Exam for Ch 9. Click HERE
for blank flow diagram on Immune Sequence of Events. Click HERE
for KEY. Click HERE
for blank flow diagram of Immune Categories. Click
HERE for KEY.
Click HERE for YouTube video of lecture on Mon Nov 14th. In this lecture I review the location of immune organs of the body, before dividing the immune system into two main categories: Innate Vs Adaptive immunity. Innate immunity does not require antibodies while adaptive immunity does. Innate immunity is divided into: 1. External innate immunity (barriers to pathogen entry into the body), and 2. Internal innate immunity (protections against pathogens after they've entered the body.
Click HERE for YouTube video of lecture on Wed Nov 16. In this lecture on the immune system I finish discussion of internal innate immunity, or how the immune system protects you from pathogens that have entered the body. I covered the role of mast cells (or basophils) and complement proteins in the inflammatory immune response, as well as natural killer cells. Most importantly though, I went over the sequence of events that happen from first exposure of the body to a foreign antigen (on a pathogen) to the productions of antibodies. This includes 1.WBCs in the blood, 2. monocytes leaving the bloodstream to enter tissues as macrophages, 3. macrophages destroying the pathogen and presenting its antigens to a helper T-cell, and 4. the helper t cells presenting the antigen to B cells, which then make antibodies to that antigen. We ended the lecture by discussing how antibodies work.
Click HERE for YouTube video of lecture on Fri Nov 18. In this last lecture on immune physiology we covered a summary of the immune system with 2 flow diagrams. The first was the sequence of events that occur after a pathogen enters the body, to the production of antibodies 2-3 weeks later. The other flow diagram was the breakdown of the immune system into innate versus adaptive immunity, and then the further breakdown of each type of immunity. We ended this lecture with a discussion of why we vaccinate for diseases. I discussed the "first" immunization by Edward Jenner using exposure to cowpox virus protected people from smallpox. We then discussed the controversy of Andrew Wakefield's fraudulent publication in 1995 helped fuel the anti-vax movement, which has lead to decreased "herd immunity" and is responsible for the re-emergence of once eradicated diseases.
Lab 9: Blood Physiology Lab. Blood Pressure Lab Report DUE. Followed by Exam 3 review.
WF (Nov 23, 25)
Lecture Exam 3 (Ch 6, 7, 8). No labs this week.
WF: Thanksgiving Break
|Nov 28, 30, Dec 2 (MWF)||
MWF: CH 15:
MALE & FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY. (PowerPoint)
|Dec 5 (M) Last day class||Lecture Quiz 3 (Ch 11). Followed by exam 3 review.(The exam review is optional)|
Exam - Fri Dec 9th 8:30am
||Exam 4 (Ch 9, 10, 15). The final exam date and time is set. You must be present. Makeups will only be provided for verifiable emergency or illness.|